The Golden Delicious cultivar is a chance seedling and assumed to be a hybrid of Golden Reinette and Grimes Golden. The original tree was first found on a farm in West Virginia, USA. The farmer Anderson Mullins sold the tree and propagation rights to Stark Brothers Nurseries. The company then sold the apple commercially in 1914 - accompanied by their Red Delicious.
The large apple with its green-yellowish skin is famous for its very sweet taste and therefore one of the 15 most popular cultivars in the United States.
It is ideal for apple sauce, apple butter and salads.
Side note: If you tend to have an allergic reaction to some apples, you should avoid a Golden Delicious.
The Golden Delicious is rather tolerant to a great number of soil and climates, though it is not very frost resistant. The trees grow best on humid soil in warm climates with dry and sunny summers and is harvested from fall through winter.
If kept at ideal conditions the apples can be stored until the next harvest.
Side note: In order to prevent the apples from turning wrinkled they are usually waxed before storage.